I think what we see from [African American's] ongoing fight, the way they sort of hunker down and get ready for the next wave of the fight, that they continue to believe [in democracy], and they continue to hope. And that's part of what we see, and they try to build a new world, and to try to protect their rights and interests with the hope that they would again be able to participate in American Democracy. That they would be able to experience those aspects of the American Dream, to have access to opportunity, to secure the future for their children. So they continued to believe and they continued to hope and they continued to fight in ways that make sense to them.
Kidada E. Williams is a native of Muskegon, Michigan. She is an assistant professor of History at Wayne State University in Detroit. She teaches courses on African American history, slavery, civil rights, and lynching and racial violence. She lives in Detroit.